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## Image Processing and Computer Vision for Robots

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**Convolution-based Image Processing, especially for texture**partitioning and robot vision.**Convolution Application**in Robot Vision First few examples what can be achieved with convolution • What is convolution • Different filters formed with Convolution • Convolution application examples**Binary Image Creation**Popularly used in industrial robotics**Convolution Kernel**• New Pixel Value Computed from Neighboring Pixel Values • Convolution of an N x N Matrix (Kernel) with the Image**No division operation here**Convolution can be done serially, in parallel or in mixed way**Convolution kernel**• Wi * F(f(x,y)) • Function of one variable F can be nonlinear, realized in a lookup table • F(f(x1,y1), f(x2,y2),…,f(x9,y9))can be highly complicated and nonlinear function**Example of a More general Convolution**pij is individual image elements in row i and column j m i,j is individual maskelements Mask Original Image**Animation of Convolution**To accomplish convolution of the whole image, we just Slide the mask Original Image Mask C4,2 C4,3 C4,4 Image after convolution**Example of a More general Convolution**More general Convolution (continued) Requires division, too bad At the heart of convolution operation is the convolution maskorkernel, shown as M(ask) or W(indow) in next figures The quotient is known as the weightof the mask**Filtering by convolution**Algorithm 1. Reads the DN of each pixel in array2. Multiplies DN by appropriate weight3. Sums the products of (DN x weight) for the nine pixels, and divides sum by 94. Derived value applied to center cell of array5. Filter moves one pixel to right, and operation is repeated, pixel by pixel, line by line No. 3**Detecting isolated points by convolution**Requires addition and multiplications, in general**To find edges of objects**Turned to 2-level with edges emphasized**Different Filters formed with Convolution**• Different filters can be formed by applying convolution • With the former equation, we get linear filters, which each is a summation of weighted pixel intensities and then is divided by a constant value, or weight • Filters that modify their operation as the data elements change also be constructed which is defined as nonlinear filters, e.g. median filter.**Different Filters formed with Convolution**By the frequency-response characteristic, linear filter can be divided into -- low-pass filter -- high-pass filter pass pass Response Response reject reject low Frequency high low Frequency high Filters (Masks) applied to zooming and noise elimination are low pass filter Filters (Mask) applied to edge detection or image sharpening are high-pass filter**Image Frequencies**• Low Frequency Components = Slow Changes in Pixel Intensity • regions of uniform intensity**High Frequency component of image and filtering**• High Frequency Components = Rapid Changes in Pixel Intensity • regions with lots of details**HIGH PASS FILTERS**Applied to digital data to remove slowly varying components, the low frequency changes in DNs from pixel to pixel, and to retain high frequency local variations • In general terms, fine detail and edges are emphasized - or enhanced - in the digital data**More About Kernels**• Coefficients of the Kernel determine its function • Color Images: Operate on luminance only, or R/G/B? • Kernel Size • smaller kernel = less computation • larger kernel = higher quality results**How to handle Edge Pixels of the image?**• How to deal with edges (no neighbors in some directions)? • Zero fill (black border around image), • or • duplicate edge pixels • or • don’t process the edges!**Basic Low Pass Filters and High Pass Laplacian Filter**result image image result**Smoothing or Blurring**Low-Pass Filtering: Eliminate Details (High Frequencies) Eliminates Pixelation Effects, Other Noise**Blurring continued**• Sum of Kernel Coefficients = 1 • preserves average image density • Simple Averaging • Gaussian Blurring • coefficients approximate the normal distribution**Zooming as a Convolution Application Example**1 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Convolve 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 4 5 6 Zero interlace Original Image (1+0+3+0+0+0+4+0+5) ÷(1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1) = 13/9 The value of a pixel in the enlarged image is the average of the value of around pixels. The difference between insert 0 and original value of pixels is “smoothed” by convolution**Low Pass Average Filter**Low Pass (Average) Filter**IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BY LOW PASS FILTERS**• Filter out medium and high frequencies and’smooth' the image so that sharp edges or gradients, and random 'noise', are suppressed • Low frequency filter examines average brightness value of a number of pixels surrounding the pixel to be enhanced • Each pixel in the array is assigned a 'weight' or 'operator'**Noise Elimination as Convolution Application Examples**There are many masks used in Noise Elimination Median Maskis a typical one The principle of Median Mask is to mask some sub-image, use the median of the values of the sub-image as its value in new image J=1 2 3 Rank: 23, 47, 64, 65, 72, 90, 120, 187, 209 I=1 2 3 median Masked Original Image